This would be reduced by further optimization to seven psig in the commercial version. This compares with about a two percent parasite load projected for an optimized kW commercial landfill gas to energy fuel cell system. It is desirable to apply a process operating at a pressure as close to atmospheric as possible. The sulfur contaminant levels are higher than typically found in municipal solid waste landfill gas. The second refrigeration step removes additional hydrocar- bons and enhances the effectiveness of the activated carbon and molecular sieve beds, which remove the remaining volatile organic compounds and hydrogen sulfide in the landfill gas.

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Multiple pretreat- ment modules can be used to accommodate a wide range of landfill sizes.

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Electric power is used for pumping the gases and the refrigeration and is accounted for as a parasite power characteristic of the system. The flare will be designed for low NOx meeting South Coast design specifications. For the purpose of the evaluation, a site capable of supporting four fuel cell power modules was selected. The second stage refrigeration condenser also greatly enhances the operation of the downstream activated carbon NMOC adsorption and mo- lecular sieve H2S removal beds by reducing the gas temperature.

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The use of staged refrigeration provides tolerance to varying landfill gas constituents. Its objective will be to determine the effectiveness of the pretreatment system design to remove critical fuel cell catalyst poisons such as sulfur and halides. The conceptual design of a landfill gas fuel cell conversion system must incorporate those features which can provide this capability and be verified in a demonstration program. Other diluent gases include nitrogen and oxygen, which are indicative of air incursion into the well most frequently in perimeter zti.


The largest number of poten- tial sites greater than kW occurs in the to kW range. The complete list of changes, which would require some engineering and needs to be incorporated at the time of manufacture, will provide the full kW power rating required in the commercial con- cept. Approval does not signify that the 232.332 necessarily reflect the views and policy of the Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Landfill HaJide Level 27 The commercial concept of the fuel cell energy recovery system is based on commercially available equipment adapted for operation on landfill gas. Phase n program logic is shown in Figure 2. A backup natural gas supply is used atj initially qualify aati fuel cell power plant before operation on landfill gas. Since the SCR employs catalyst in the clean-up system, the landfill gas will have to be pretreated in a manner similar to the fuel cell system.

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Sulfur 232.3, volatile priority pol- lutants including halogenated species, and major hydrocarbon species are listed. The impact of air emissions, liquids, and solids disposal were considered. CO, O, Ar 4. IFC will generate a detailed engineering design of the demonstration test hardware at the selected site. The pretreatment system will remove sulfur and halide contaminants, water, and particulates present in raw landfill gas. It is envisioned, at this time, that this challenge test will consist of subjecting the pretreatment unit to increased levels of a known light easily handled, but difficult to remove, halogenated freon atii.

The pretreat system should be capable of checkout and operation without the fuel cell.

In the event of malfunction in the fuel pretreatment system, the pretreatment system shall have provisions for automatic shutdown which protects the pretreatment system and does not exceed any site emissions limitations. These figures, provided by Pacific Energy, describe the location and description of the existing landfill gas to energy conversion equipment which consists of five megawatt 232.23 combustion engine generator sets. With this level of definition, IFC was able to extract the demonstration project site-specific conceptual design shown in Figure S The level of these revenues depends upon the value of the electricity, the amount and value of the heat used, and the value of the emissions offsets.


It can be transformed and put into the electric grid, used directly at nearby facilities, or used at the landfill itself. The gas contains approximately 50 percent methane by volume with 22.32 heating value of Btu per standard cubic foot.

Details of the individual sub-elements in the energy conver- sion system follow this discussion.

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The Penrose Station is an 8. The general fuel cell system consists of three major subsystems – fuel processing, dc power generation in 23.32 fuel cell stack and dc to ac power condition- ing by the inverter. The only exception to the commercial system is the return of the pretreatment first stage refriger- ation condenser liquid products mostly water to the existing Penrose condensate treatment system.

Although most of the oxygen in the air is consumed in the landfill, nitrogen content of the gas increases thereby lowering the heating value of the gas. A thermodynamic analysis of the fuel cell power plant optimized for operating on landfill gas was completed. Average methane content is 44 percent and the gas typically contains ppmv sulfur and 78 to 95 ppmv halides.