Discussion A central tenet of current models of leukocyte trafficking is that coordinated regulation of adhesive and migratory responses controls cellular positioning or homing in vivo Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. Integrins and the actin cytoskeleton. Cell surface-localized matrix metalloproteinase-9 proteolytically activates TGF-beta and promotes tumor invasion and angiogenesis. Adhesion, invasion and evasion: Responses to secondary lymphoid chemokines increase progressively during B cell differentiation in the BM and are upregulated even further in cells that have progressed into fully mature recirculating peripheral B cells.

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When these wound dynamics are disrupted, pathological wound healing ensues. Role of integrins in regulating epidermal adhesion, growth and differentiation.

Developmental Switches in Chemokine Response Profiles during B Cell Differentiation and Maturation

Wound cells respond to jodel changes Hinz,and increasing evidence links wound pathogenesis to alterations in ECM compliance and mechanical tension within the wound bed Wong et al.

Role of platelet-derived growth factor in wound healing. Laminin 5 processing and its integration into the ECM.

Morphological and immunochemical differences between keloid and hypertrophic scar. We offer our apologies to the many researchers whose valuable contributions to the field could not be cited due to space constraints. Among these are ECM proteins that are prominent in healing wounds, such as plasma and cellular forms of fibronectin. The switchable integrin adhesome.

Integrin alpha3 mutations with kidney, lung, and skin disease. Embryonic mesodermal defects in alpha 5 integrin-deficient mice. It is attractive to postulate that responsiveness to TECK and potentially RANTES and JE by B lineage progenitors may help target them into supportive specialized niches appropriate to communicwtions developmental stage, and that downregulation of this these response with subsequent maturation would then allow their progression to different marrow microenvironments.


The healing that follows deep traumatic or serious burn injury is often complicated by the elaboration of keloids or hypertrophic scars Ehrlich et al.

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Disease Models and Mechanisms. Prostaglandin Communicatios inhibits alpha-smooth muscle actin transcription during myofibroblast differentiation via distinct mechanisms of modulation of serum response factor and myocardin-related transcription factor-A.

Journal List J Exp Med v. Chemokines were used at the following concentrations: See text for supporting literature.

Because keratinocytes secrete paracrine mediators e. Biology of chemokine and classical chemoattractant receptorsdifferential requirements for adhesion-triggering versus chemotactic responses in lymphoid cells.

Integrin-mediated regulation of epidermal wound functions

Cellular and molecular facets of keratinocyte reepithelization during wound healing. Myofibroblast modrl is induced in keratinocyte-fibroblast co-cultures and is antagonistically regulated by endogenous transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin Adhesion, invasion and evasion: Lymphocyte trafficking and regional immunity. Most leukocytes express multiple chemokine and other chemoattractant receptors in overlapping ansl as a function of their development and activation state.

Expressed at very low levels. Increased expression of beta6-integrin in skin leads to spontaneous development of chronic wounds.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Sep 1. Expression of the beta 6 integrin subunit in development, neoplasia and tissue repair suggests a role in epithelial remodeling. Moreover, defects in these pathways may contribute to vascular abnormalities associated with chronic wounds Eming et al. An extensive network of communication exists between the different cell types within the wound microenvironment, and mounting evidence supports the concept that integrins from within neutrophils, monocytes, fibroblasts, or endothelial cells can control crosstalk to keratinocytes that influences wound re-epithelialization Koivisto et al.


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In contrast to the similar chemotactic fingerprints of microenvironmentally defined peripheral B cell populations, developing BM B cells display striking, stage-specific chemokine response profiles. Control of blood vessel density involves the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of endothelial cells, which can be regulated through accessibility of angiogenic growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor FGF-2EGF, platelet-derived growth factor PDGFand VEGF.

Youngman for critical reading of the manuscript. Wound keratinocytes have long been known to secrete angiogenic factors Johnson and Wilgus,yet the mechanisms that regulate this process remain poorly understood. Ligation of integrin alpha 3beta 1 by laminin 5 at the wound edge activates Rho-dependent adhesion of leading keratinocytes on collagen. Formidable challenges lie ahead as we attempt to translate this knowledge into the development of therapeutic approaches to treat wound healing deficiencies in the clinic.